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    Record number, Title, Heukels Flora van Nederland 23e druk. Author(s), Meijden, R. van der. Source, Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff - ISBN. Frodin 2: Deel I, ; deel II, ; deel III, Each vol. has bookplate of F.C.J. Fischer, Dutch entomologist "Lijst van nederlandsche. Download Citation on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , R. Van der Meijden and others published Heukels' Flora Van Nederland.

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    Hence, the Dutch Carex flora includes now 62 species, since the two In his first three editions Heukels' Flora van Nederland, Van der. Lees het zelf in PDF: Moderne namen (Heukels' Flora 23e druk) naast de oude in de kop van elk hoofdstuk; Directe links naar het online Woordenboek der. Heukels, H. & Ooststroom, S. J. van, Flora van Nederland. Aufl., bearbeitet von S. J. van Ooststroom. S., Abb. im Text. Wolters‐Noordhoff NV.

    Verloove photos and H. Engledow distribution map Samenvatting. Uit herbariumonderzoek bleek dat de soort in de haven van Antwerpen reeds minstens sinds de jaren werd ingezameld maar nooit eenduidig werd benoemd. Ondertussen is ze in grote delen van het havengebied algemeen en plaatselijk zelfs erg invasief. Het onderscheid tussen C. De habitatpreferenties van C. Introduction were known to me, for many years, from the port area of Antwerp fig. These plants looked very much like Carduus, as traditionally circumscribed, is a genus of ca. Carduus crispus but finally turned out to belong with 90 Old World species, mainly distributed in Eurasia and Carduus acanthoides. This was subsequently confirmed by a partial range see for instance Desrochers et al.

    Normal typeface indicates constant species, i. Calthion palustris, 5 sites [25 species, cm]. Hay-meadow on moderately fertile, continuously wet soils.

    Species: Carex disticha, Lychnis flos- cuculi, Lotus pedunculatus, Cirsium palustre, Cardamine pratensis, Calliergonella cuspidata, Carex acutiformis, Ranunculus acris, Filipendula ulmaria. Management: cutting typically with removal once per yr. Hay-meadow on relatively fertile, wet soils.

    Species: Agrostis stolonifera, Juncus effusus, Poa trivialis, Equisetum palustre, Cirsium palustre, Holcus lanatus, Ranunculus acris, Cardamine pratensis, Rumex acetosa, Plantago lanceolata, Phragmites australis, Festuca rubra, Anthoxantum odoratum. Management: cutting with or without removal once per yr. Hay-meadow with a tendency toward tall-herb grassland on moist to wet, moderately fertile soils.

    Species: Alopecurus pratensis, Sanguisorba officinalis, Valeriana officinalis, Filipendula ulmaria, Thalictrum flavum, Rumex acetosa, Holcus lanatus, Ranunculus acris, Silene dioica, Festuca rubra, Poa trivialis, Glechoma hederacea, Heracleum sphondylium, Phalaris arundinacea, Brachythecium rutabulum.

    Management: cutting with or without removal , once or twice per yr. Ruderalized hay-meadow on nutrient-rich, moist to slightly wet soils. Species: Arrhenatherum elatius, Anthriscus sylvestris, Heracleum sphondylium, Dactylus glomerata, Poa trivialis, Urtica dioica, Galium aparine, Glechoma hederacea, Phalaris arundinacea, Symphytum officinale, Cirsium arvense.

    Management: cutting sometimes without removal once per yr. Arrhenatheretum elatioris, 5 sites [30 species, cm]. Hay-meadow on moderately nutrient-rich, relatively moist soils. Species: Arrhenatherum elatius, Crepis biennis, Trisetum flavescens, Centaurea jacea, Cerastium fontanum, Anthriscus sylvestris, Heracleum sphondylium, Ranunculus bulbosus, Trifolium dubium, Achillea millefolium, Poa trivialis, Bromus hordeaceus, Festuca rubra. Species-rich hay-meadow on moderately nutrient-poor, relatively dry soils.

    Species: Arrhenatherum elatius, Avenula pubescens, Festuca rubra, Ranunculus bulbosus, Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Senecio jacobea, Lotus corniculatus, Poa pratensis, Pimpinella saxifraga, Sanguisorba minor, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Cerastium arvense, Galium verum, Luzula campestris. Management: cutting with removal once or twice per yr. Ruderalized dry hay-meadow. Species: Tanacetum vulgare, Dactylus glomerata, Agrostis capillaris, Plantago lanceolata, Arrhenatherum elatius, Artemisia vulgaris, Cirsium arvense, Rumex obtusifolius, Leucanthemum vulgare, Poa pratensis, Festuca rubra, Holcus lanatus, Holcus mollis, Brachythecium rutabulum.

    Management: mowing sometimes without removal once per yr, or no management. Molinio-Arrhenetheretea trunk community with Koelerio-Corynephoretea aspect, 3 sites [14 species, cm]. Species-poor, dry hay-meadow. Species: Agrostis capillaris, Festuca rubra, Plantago lanceolata, Poa pratensis, Hypochaeris radicata, Achillea millefolium, Holcus lanatus, Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus, Brachythecium rutabulum.

    Management: mowing once per yr occasionally twice with removal. Thero-Airion, 7 sites [17 species, 60 cm]. Late-stage pioneer community on dry, nutrient-poor, relatively acid sandy soils. Species: Aira praecox, Teesdalia nudicaulis, Ornithopus perpusillus, Jasione montana, Hypochaeris radicata, Agrostis capillaris, Festuca ovina, Rumex acetosella, Leontodon saxatilis, Polytrichum juniperinum, Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium.

    Management: No management, or mowing once per yr. Spergulo-Corynephoretum, 4 sites [16 species, cm]. Early-stage pioneer community on dry, nutrient-poor, humus-poor, acid sandy soils. Species: Coryne- phorus canescens, Spergula morisonii, Polytrichum piliferum, various Cladonia spp. No management. Genisto-Callunetum, 5 sites [12 species, cm].

    Heath vegetation on relatively dry, nutrient-poor, very acid soils. Species: Calluna vulgaris, Genista anglica, Hypnum jutlandicum, Dicranum scoparium, Deschampsia flexuosa, Festuca ovina, Carex pilulifera. Beknopte flora van Nederlandse blad- en levermossen Concise flora of Dutch mosses and hepatics.

    J,, A. Stortelder, and V. De vegetatie van Nederland Vegetation classification of the Netherlands. Opulus Press, Leiden. Wolters Noordhoff, Groningen. Appendix B. Details on materials, methods and variables used to describe vegetation structure and environmental conditions.

    The data from the drop-disk technique measurements in each of 2 sub-plots measuring 1x4 m using a 20x20 cm grid was treated as follows.

    The characteristic height for the site as a whole was calculated as the average of patch-heights. The spatial variation in height was calculated as the coefficient of variation in patch-heights averaged over the two sub-plots. From the drop-disk data obtained during 5 visits from April to November, every 5 to 8 weeks the following variables on horizontal and temporal variation in height were derived: maximum seasonal height largest site-height encountered during the 5 visits , mean seasonal height average site-height over the 5 visits , the temporal variation coefficient of variation of site-heights over the visits , the ratio between mean and maximum seasonal height roughly indicating whether vegetation height is near its peak value during most of the season or during a short period only , and the maximum spatial variation maximum over the 5 visits of the coefficient of variation in patch-height.

    Horizontal cover percentages were estimated, not only for individual vegetation layers herbs, mosses, litter and open ground , but also for the total vegetation herbs and mosses together , for open ground with litter included, and for open ground with both litter and mosses included.

    Environmental conditions All soil measurements refer to the top 10 cm of the soil.

    Prior to sampling the loose litter layer was removed. Material remaining in the sieve was weighed so that results could be adjusted to the complete sample-size. – Plant occurrences in Flanders and the Brussels Capital Region, Belgium

    Bulk densities were measured by taking five random samples of exactly 0. Chemical results were expressed on a volume basis amount ha-1 [ cm depth]. Dried samples were extracted using 0. Extraction was performed using 3 g soil in 30 ml of extraction solution by shaking for two hours. The fraction of mineral N occurring as NO3 was labeled the nitrification degree not to be confused with the rate of the nitrification process.

    Soil pH measurements took place in the settling suspension of the CaCl2 extracts, before centrifuging Houba et al. Soil moisture content was determined not only in March just before the start of the growing season but again in July mid-summer.

    Two non-edaphic site conditions were used in this study, reflecting consequences of site exposition and inclination. Effects of nutrient enrichment in Dutch chalk grassland. Journal of Applied Ecology The shape of the in- proposed to distinguish between both species that proved volucre is also different: this is more or less spherical or to be unreliable: they were not unique for one of both spe- even wider than long in Carduus acanthoides but rather cies, too variable to have any taxonomic value or simply longer than wide in C.

    Digital images by the end of flowering, while in C. Carduus crispus; in fact, involucres are most of the time Flower heads. Indeed, as seen in Leaves. Linnaeus did not emphasize the leaf the types, eventually, flower heads are always solitary in characters to distinguish between both species.

    Kazmi Carduus acanthoides but they are sometimes aggregated , while examining the type material, found out that in small clusters before or at the beginning of flowering. In Carduus ly clearly pedunculate, often with the peduncle devoid of acanthoides the lower leaf surface is subglabrous and a spiny wing just below the head contrary to the opinion more or less shiny.

    In fact, on closer examination, leaf of most authors; see for instance Tamamschyan In Carduus In normally developed plants capitula are also obviously crispus, contrary to Kazmi l. This is correctly but accompanied by a conspicuous cobwebby indumen- F. Both such hairs are always lack- The ongoing confusion between them as recently re- ing in Carduus acanthoides.

    This feature was correctly as- ferred to by Stace doubtlessly is a result of this. Other au- , for instance, it is impossible to reliably identify thors largely neglected this important feature e. In couplet 30 Carduus acanthoides Leaf incision also seems to be a reliable character and C. Moreover, for Carduus acanthoides flower Degree of spininess.

    The degree of spininess and the heads are said to be sessile while they nearly always are dimensions of spines on stem wings and leaf lobe apices shortly but distinctly pedunculate. In lead 37 he writes for both Carduus acanthoides this character in their keys and vernacular names also and C.

    De flora van Nederland

    Many plants seen from longer spines than usually claimed for the former. First, the colour of not be confirmed on Belgian plants. Ma- crispus versus pink or dark-pink in C. Other representatives of also Tamamschyan Flower heads fig. Lower leaf surface sub- glabrous to slightly hairy with multicellular hairs confined to the veins; unicellular and cobwebby hairs absent. Leaves mostly pinnatipartite. Corolla usually bright pink. Plant often very tall frequently up to cm or taller and longer spines stem wings, leaflobe apices frequently more than 5 mm long Carduus acanthoides Flower heads fig.

    Lower leaf surface sparsely or densely hairy with a mixture of multicellular, unicellular and cobwebby hairs fig. Leaves less deeply divided, usually sinuate-pinnatilobate to pin- natifid. Corolla darker, usually purple rarely white. Plant usually smaller with longer spines less than 5 mm long but tall plants with longer spines may also occur.

    The is- Figure 2. He Singel , roadside, July Inflorescence of Carduus crispus, Kortrijk, rough Figure 4. Lower leaf surface of Carduus crispus, Kortrijk, rough ground near river Leie, August Ver- the end of the 19th century little had changed although only heggen s.

    BR ; Carduus crispus incl. Busschodts s. BR ; ed by Durand Guns s. Crevecoeur s. Vandenbroeck s. BR ; proved to be sometimes contradictory.

    Van- species are included in the standard Belgian floras see denbroeck s. BR ; De Langhe et al.

    However, in the past decades uncertainty about the de Witte s. Deleruelz s. BR ; gered on. Gras s.

    Vegetation Ooijpolder

    According to Amaral Franco duus acanthoides by J. De Langhe but eventually, erro- it is not native in Belgium although it is unclear neously, ascribed to C.

    See also on which data this statement is based. Wagenitz the distribution map fig. Duvigneaud 78 B , R. BR ; vaartdijk, Delogne s. BR ; helling, sporadisch, It has also been recorded on rough ground, by railway tracks, on talus slopes, ground heaps and other highly dis- turbed habitats in the port. In Wijnegem it occurs in dry grassland in a nature reserve Het Wijtschot , close to the Albertkanaal.

    It is difficult to assess with certainty the rate of spread of Carduus acanthoides in the Antwerp port area.

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