Designation: A/AM – Steel, Sheet, Carbon, Structural, and High-Strength, Low- steel sheet in coils and cut lengths. This specification covers the general requirements for tions are expressed in both inch-pound units and SI units. specifications that describe carbon steel, structural steel, and fication designation (SI units), the material shall be furnished. high-strength, low-alloy steel. A / AMa Standard Specification for Steel, Sheet, Carbon, Structural, and 31, $ Standard + Redline PDF Bundle ASTM License Agreement.
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This standard is issued under the fixed designation A/AM; the 1 This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on. ASTM A, AM_Steel, Low alloy - Designation: A /A M – 02 An American National Stand. Home; ASTM A/AMa. $; Add to Cart. Printed Edition + PDF;; Immediate download; $; Add to Cart.
Width, in. B When no special edge or finish other than matte, commercial bright, or luster finish or single strand rolling of widths, or both under 24 in. These Width, in. Over 12B 0. B When no special edge or finish other than matte, commercial bright, or luster 3.
Historic limitations of a product based upon steel sheet is commonly classified by size as follows: To qualify any product for a particular product specification 5 requires all appropriate and necessary tests be performed and Discontinued; see Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol If the necessary tests required by a product Robbins Ave.
This general requirements speci- fication contains permitted variations for the commonly avail- able sizes. Permitted variations for other sizes are subject to agreement between the customer and the manufacturer or processor, whichever is applicable. Sheet on Drawing and Forming. Where specific hardness range or limit or a specified surface texture is required, the application is consid- 4.
Materials and Manufacture ered as exposed. Appendix X1. Unless special killed nonaging steel is specified, it is to 4. When any of these features are detrimental to the application, the manufacturer shall be notified at time of 5. Chemical Composition ordering in order to properly process the sheet. However, if other compo- 4. The an- accordance with Appendix X2.
When cold-rolled care must be exercised in selection of chemical composition or sheet is used for unexposed applications and coil breaks are a mechanical properties to assure compatibility with the welding hazard in uncoiling, it may be necessary to further process the process and its effect on altering the properties. In this case the manufacturer should be consulted.
After annealing, cold-rolled sheet is generally given a light 5. Temper passing also pro- 5. Cut lengths Mill rejections repetitive imperfections. Product analysis is and must be free of scale, grease, dirt, or other foreign appropriate on these types of steel only when misapplication is substances.
They must not be overheated during cutting to the apparent or for copper when copper steel is specified. Chips must be well mixed 5. The chemical on a No.
Sieve analysis shall not vary from the limits specified by more than size numbers are in accordance with Specification E The several determinations of any 5. Mechanical Properties 15 tons incl, and 6 pieces for lots over 15 tons.
See Practice 6. The sampling may be facilitated by folding the sheet 6. Therefore users must analyze chips the limiting value for other values in accordance with the taken from the steel in the condition in which it is received rounding off method given in Practice E There are many interrelated factors that affect the ability of a given steel to cold form over a given radius under Tolerance shop conditions. Each of the appropriate product Carbon to 0. These radii should be used as over 0.
Where possible, the use of larger radii over 1. Silicon to 0.
This is not considered Copper 0. A Nickel to 1. Molybdenum to 0. General Requirements for Delivery Niobium 7. A to inch-pound or metric decimal thickness only and the Nitrogen to 0. A Where an ellipsis. When different grades of strand-cast steel are sequentially cast, B If the minimum of the range is 0. C If the minimum of the range is 0. Processed coils such as pickled or blast cleaned are products covered by this specification are contained in Tables supplied with square-cut ends.
The appropriate toler- 9. This class will meet requirements for controlled surface 8. It is normally processed and Table 16 for hot-rolled sheet and Table 25 for cold-rolled by the manufacturer to be free of stretcher strain and fluting.
Subsequent user roller leveling immediately before fabrication 8. These methods are 9. With some surface preparation matte steepness and rejection limits are subject to negotiation be- finish is suitable for decorative painting. It is not generally tween the downloadr and the producer. Finish and Condition having a surface texture intermediate between that of matte and 9.
With some surface preparation commercial bright resulting from the hot-rolling operation. The oxide or scale can finish is suitable for decorative painting or certain plating be removed by pickling or blast cleaning when required for applications. If sheet is deformed in fabrication the surface press-work operations or welding. Hot-rolled and hot-rolled may roughen to some degree and areas so affected will require descaled sheet is not generally used for exposed parts where surface preparation to restore surface texture to that of the surface is of prime importance.
Mill edges are the natural edges resulting rolling on ground rolls and is suitable for decorative painting or from the hot-rolling operation. They do not conform to any plating with additional special surface preparation by the user.
They may also contain some edge imper- The luster may not be retained after fabrication; therefore, the fections, the more common types of which are cracked edges, formed parts will require surface preparation to make them thin edges feather , and damaged edges due to handling or suitable for bright plating.
These edge conditions are detrimental where joining of applications, is not subject to limitations on degree and the mill edges by welding is practiced.
When the downloadr frequency of surface imperfections, and restrictions on texture intends to shear or to blank, a sufficient width allowance should and mechanical properties are not applicable.
The manufacturer may be tendency toward fluting and stretcher straining. Unexposed consulted for guidance. Cut edges are the normal edges which cold-rolled sheet may contain more surface imperfections than result from the shearing, slitting, or trimming of mill-edge exposed cold-rolled sheet because steel applications, process- sheet. Where with a matte finish, unless otherwise specified.
A Tolerances for hot-rolled carbon sheet steel with 0. This table does not apply to the uncropped ends of mill edge coils. NOTE 2—The specified thickness range captions also apply when sheet is specified to a nominal thickness, and the tolerances are divided equally, over and under. NOTE 3—Micrometers used for measurement of thickness shall be constructed with anvils and spindles having minimum diameters of 0.
The tip of the spindle shall be flat, and the tip of the anvil shall be flat or rounded with a minimum radius of curvature of 0. Micrometers with pointed tips are not suitable for thickness measurements.
Thickness Tolerances Over, in. Specified Width, in. B Product not available in this size range. Cut Edge and 1-in. NOTE 4—This table was constructed by multiplying the values in the standard table by 0. Oiling must be specified, when required. If the product is not to be oiled, it must be so cut lengths. Unexposed or annealed cold-rolled metal finishing by the downloadr. Workmanship Thickness Tolerances, Over, in.
NOTE 2—The specified thickness tolerance range captions also apply when sheet is specified to a nominal thickness, and the tolerances are divided equally, over and under. Thickness Tolerances All Over, in. Cut lengths may contain random minor surface lengths. In addition, unexposed lished standards. Coils will pinchers, cross breaks, roll marks, and other surface imperfec- contain such imperfections which shall be acceptable to the tions than exposed.
Coils the downloadr without limitation.
Length, in. No Specified Width, Specified Width, in. Tolerance Under in. Over 80 2 A The above tolerances do not apply to the uncropped ends of mill edge coils Cut Length, ft in.
No Tolerance ances, in. The values listed are not exact conversions of the values listed in the inch-pound tables, but instead are rounded or rationalized values. NOTE 1—The term weight is used when inch-pound units are the standard.
However, under SI the preferred term is mass. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. Current edition approved Nov. Published November NOTE 2—This table applies to widths produced by slitting from wider sheet.
B Tolerances for high-strength. Over and Under. Specified Flatness Tolerance. During heating. With temper X1. DDS sheet is suitable for use in many exposed significant bake-hardening. Aging always has a negative effect on formability and.
Solute carbon or producer. The develop during subsequent forming. Aging refers to a gradual increase in yield strength and minimize the solute carbon level. Over time. As described as follows. These steps ensure that total interstitial levels are increases with increasing temperature. To minimize aging effects in continuous-annealed nitrogen atoms are those not chemically combined with other products.
Final most ductile condition. This problem is avoided in faster cooling. Aging occurs largely during a subse- interstitial solute levels are very low and. In general. This nonaging. These steels are processed to have mod- aluminum nitride. The extent to which aging occurs essentially no interstitial solutes and.
Subsequent cooling is very slow and allows erate aging resistance. After tial solute in the product as compared with batch annealing.
To When the maximum manganese limit exceeds 1. Carbon Steels Only. A Certain individual specifications provide for lower standard limits for phosphorus and sulfur. The left of zero portion of the X4. Total production of without breakage. Selection from the various steels that are commercially avail. Broken parts A 32 1. Parts showing laminations. It is useful in the laboratory and in the press room.
Inherent variations in steel and normal therefore. B 27 2. Strain combinations that locate below this X4. On this basis. In low-carbon sheet categories if the following adjustments to the addition. To ensure trouble- is the circle grid and forming limit curve. The average breakage thus determined shall be considered the allowance for the part. Although the in what may appear to be noncritical areas. The sumer download order.
A for etching. The latter should be employed in materials that quality being established by either supplier designation. It is again rinsed with water and then sprayed with it is easy to read and the gauge spacing is short enough to show KPR black dye to reveal the etched circles.
The circles may be 2. Various electrolytes excess oil and dirt. If sufficient time is available. Some should be determined from observation of panels previously electrolytes are more effective than others for etching certain formed.
It is blanks so that the strains that occur in reverse draws can be advisable to refrain from touching the metal of the etch pad and determined. The area s to be etched are available from suppliers of the etching equipment. The sheet is developed for 30 to 45 s in KPR circles in a uniform pattern. In the former method of current material information should be consulted to determine photosensitive solution. The magnitude of the X4.
The etching time will vary with the amperage forming limit curve. Wetting the stencil with a minimum amount of electrolyte will assist in smoothing FIG. Apply suitable pressure to the pad. If a sequence of operations is used in forming a part. A different e1.
For sharp radii. After the e1. It should be noted at situations. Rocker-type etch pads material of a lower grade may be applied. Excessive current causes stencil damage.
The maximum e1 and associated e2 values measured in critical areas on the formed part are X4. These ellipses have major and strain. Even when the level of strain is relatively low. The etch pad Cross Section of Etched Panel is now positioned on the stencil and the current turned on.
The major strain e1 is always defined to be deform in two dimensions. Only the minimum time necessary to produce a clear etched pattern X4. This means the metal works best when it is allowed to minor strain axes. The of the forming variables such as die conditions.
Typical tools are a pair X4. Scales are X4. A change in e2 to decrease the without regard to original blank edges or the sheet rolling severity can be made by changing one of the previously direction. The lines FIG. Remove the tape. The Xs are the critical major strains as determined from surface. If the strain over the punch is critical. When either of these splitting tendency can be reduced as follows: In these instances.
A plot of the major strain distribution should be This is a fairly simple procedure for panels having generous made by finding the ellipse with the largest major strain circle radii and fairly even stretch or draw.
This course of action requires no binding nor reshaping X4. Many major panels fall in 7 and measuring both the major and minor strains in the row this category. Steep strain gradients X4. The resulting major elongation in the one direction.
That is. The increase in unit area can be calculated by sufficiently to bring the strain combination below the critical dividing the original thickness by the final thickness. The strain distribution curve puts forth graphically the need to distribute the strain over the length of the time by some means as described above.
The the square area exhibiting the greatest increase. Assuming the blank thickness to be 0. The steepness index value for this sample is defined The height can then be determined by inserting a step gauge as: Using the length of one of these strips as a X5. Mathematical relationships between the three representations of flatness described here are given in Table X5. To determine defined as: If the coil has edge are in use for characterizing sheet with longitudinal waves or waves.
If no flatness deviation can be found. These are steepness index and flatness index or can be inserted under a wave to determine the height. From Table X5. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights.
If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards. West Conshohocken. PO Box C PA This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised.
Individual reprints single or multiple copies of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at phone. ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Committee A01 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue. Approved May 1. Approved November 1. United States. Astm A Flag for inappropriate content.
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